A spermiogram is a vital test for assessment of male fertility. It evaluates quality characteristics (morphology, motility, vitality) and quantity characteristics of sperm (count, concentration, volume). Furthermore, other parameters related to sperm are examined (leucocytes).
A spermiogram is performed, if found necessary, when:
- Couples intending to have a baby wish to examine their fertility.
- Surgery or treatment which may affect testicular function takes place.
- Couples opt for assisted reproduction.
- Cryopreservation is necessary for future use.
- There are direct or indirect signs of disorders related to infertility.
In cases of male infertility, the results of the tests are those which will determine the doctor’s decision on what treatment should be followed each time.
For more accurate results, the man needs to refain from sexual intercourse for two or three days. Semen is collected in a special plastic container after masturbation, and sperm have different quality and quantity characteristics from sperm produced during coitus interruptus or condom collection after intercourse.
After collection sperm must be exposed to specific atmospheric conditions and the man needs to be extremely careful in order to collect all the quantity because the first drops contain most spermatozoa and the last drops provide us with essential information about viscosity, acidity and other parameters related to sperm.
Analysis of sperm may detect the following problems:
- Aspemia: complete lack of semen
- Azoospermia: absence of sperm in semen
- Oligozoospermia: low concentration of sperm in semen
- Severe oligozoospermia: minimal concentation of sperm
- Teratospermia: high concentration of abormallly shaped sperm
- Necrozoospermia: dead or immotile sperm
Normal values of a spermiogram are:
- Sperm volume> 2.0 ml
- Sperm acidity (PH) > 7.2
- Leucocytes: <1.000.000