The female reproductive organs are the uterus, the fallopian tubes and the ovaries. Approximately half of infertile women have been proved to have problems in the fallopian tubes, while 40% have ovulation problems
A smaller percentage of women (10%) face uterine disorders, and in some cases, despite constant medical attention and testing, causes of infertility cannot be defined. The primary factor greatly affecting a woman’s ability to reproduce is age. At the age of 25, a woman has 25% chances of achieving pregnancy per menstrual cycle.
As time passes, unfortunately this rate drops drastically: after the age of 35 it drops by 5-10% and at the same time, miscarriage rates rise considerably. It is estimated that one out of every three women in her 40s has a spontaneous miscarriage a while after conception.
Time favours several pathological conditions (salpingitis, endometriosis). In addition, the number of follicles and eggs that exist in a woman’s ovaries from birth drops substantially. This fact and “ageing” of the eggs cause certain chromosomal abnormalities which have a negative effect on fertility.
In general, causes of female infertility fall into these categories:
Problems in pelvis and fallopian tubes:
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Ectopic pregnancy
- Congenital abnormalities
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome
- Early menopause
- Thyroid gland disorder
- Chemotherapy- Radiotherapy
- Oophorectomy (ovary removal surgery)
Other causes of infertility:
- Cervical dysfunction
- Uterine problems (polyp, fibroids, inflammations)
- Immunological factors
- Chromosomal abnormalities